In general the effects of abuse vary in each child and can depend on things like the type of abuse, who the perpetrator was and the length of time over which it occurred. Other factors may be the child’s age and developmental level as well as the level of support they receive upon disclosure.
Remember that there is no right or wrong way to behave after sexual abuse.
Sexual abuse may have both short term and long term effects; in the short term children may feel
- Fear – As the offender often uses threats to ensure the child’s secrecy
- Helplessness/powerlessness – Children in this situation often feel that they have no control over their own lives or even over their own bodies.
- Guilt and Shame – The child knows something is wrong, but blames him or herself not others.
- Responsibility – The offender often makes the chid feel responsible for the abuse, and for keeping the abuse a secret
- Betrayal and Anger – Children may feel betrayed or angry because they are dependent upon adults for nurturing and protection and the offender is someone who they should be able to love and trust. They may also feel betrayed by a non-offending parent who they believe has failed to protect them.
- Sadness – Children may feel grief due to a sense of loss, especially if the perpetrator was loved and trusted by the child.
- Flashbacks – These can be like nightmares which happen while the child is awake. They are a re-experience of the sexual assault as it occurred at that time.
Other short term impacts may include:
- Physical symptoms, such as Sexually Transmitted Infections, pregnancy , headaches, abdominal pain, fatigue or physical injuries;
- Behavioural problems such as irritability, clinginess, phobias, eating and sleeping disorders, dissociating and difficulty concentrating.
Long term effects of child sexual abuse may include the following:
- Inability to Concentrate
- Sleep Disturbances
- Bed Wetting
- Low Self Esteem
- Acting Out Sexually
- Feeling Isolated
- Suicidal Thoughts or Ideation
- Drug Use
- Difficulty Trusting Others
- Feeling Dirty
- Becoming withdrawn
- Day Dreaming
- Minimising the Abuse
- Confusion around Sex and Affection
- Testing Behaviour
- Dissociative Symptoms
- Self Mutilation
- Uncontrollable Emotions
- Spacing out
- Eating Disorders
- Distorted Body Image
- Feeling Panicky or overwhelmed
- Fear of Men/Women
Find the child sexual abuse prevention resource. ‘Ending offending together’ here: www.wellstop.org.nz
Child Matters: www.childmatters.org.nz
New Zealand Police: www.police.govt.nz
Follow this link for a list of books around child sexual abuse available from Rape Crisis Dunedin www.rapecrisisdunedin.org.nz
Child Sexual Abuse Factsheet
Child Development Age and Stages
Look Listen Act